There is a developing body of scientific literature that underpins A1 beta-casein digestion, the release of BCM-7 and its subsequent health effects. The a2 Milk Company (Australia) is committed to building upon and presenting to healthcare professionals this evidence base.
If you are a health professional interested in learning more about this exciting area of scientific research, you might like to visit the links below to articles and research studies published by third parties. These links are provided for your convenience only and do not imply any endorsement or approval by us.
Below you will find studies into the A1/A2 beta-casein digestive differences as well as links to the original papers.
Comparison of the impact of bovine milk β-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trialAmber M Milan, Aahana Shrestha, Helga J Karlström, Jakob A Martinsson, Nils J Nilsson, Jo K Perry, Li Day, Matthew P G Barnett, David Cameron-Smith (2019). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz279
Unravelled facets of milk derived opioid peptides: a focus on gut physiology, fractures and obesityHajara Aslam, Anu Ruusunen, Michael Berk, Amy Loughman, Leni Rivera, Julie A. Pasco and Felice N. Jacka (2019). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2019.1614540
Effects of Conventional Milk Versus Milk Containing Only A2 β-Casein on Digestion in Chinese Children: A Randomized Study.Xiaoyang Sheng, Zailing Li, Jiayi Ni & Greg Yelland (2019). Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002437
Systematic review of the gastrointestinal effects of A1 compared with A2 beta-casein.Brooke-Taylor, S. Dwyer, K. Woodford K. Kost, N. (2017). Advances in Nutrition, 8(5), pp: 739-748.
Clinical evaluation of glutathione concentrations after consumption of milk containing different subtypes of beta-casein: results from a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.Deth, R. Clarke, A. Ni, J. Trivedi, M. (2016). Nutrition Journal, 15(1).
Effects of milk containing only A2 beta-casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta-casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behaviour of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows' milk.Jianqin, S. Leiming, X. Li, X. Yelland, GW. Ni, J. Clarke, AJ. (2016). Nutrition Journal, 15(35).
Effects of cow's milk beta-casein variants on symptoms of milk intolerance in Chinese adults: a multicentre, randomised controlled study.He, M. Sun, J. Jiang, ZQ. Yang, YX. (2017). Nutrition Journal, 16(1).
The effect of endurance exercise on intestinal integrity in well-trained healthy men.JanssenDuijghuijsen, LM. Mensink, M. Lenaerts, K. Fiedorowicz, E. van Dartel, DAM. Mes, JJ. Luiking YC. Keijer, J. Wichers, HJ. Witkamp, RF. van Norren, K. (2016). Physiological Reports, 4(20).
Identification of bioactive peptides and quantification of beta-casomorphin-7 from bovine beta-casein A1, A2 and I after ex vivo gastrointestinal digestion.Asledottir, T. Le, TT. Petrat-Melin, B. Devold, TG. Larsen, LB. Vegarud, GE. (2017). International Dairy Journal, 71.
Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences.Trivedi, MS. Shah, JS. Al-Mughairy, S. Hodgson, NW. Simms, B. Trooskens, GA. Van Creikinge, W. Deth, RC. (2014). The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 25(10), pp: 1011-1018.
Scientific Report of EFSA prepared by a DATEX Working Group on the potential health impact of ß-casomorphins and related peptidesEFSA Scientific Report (2009). 231, 1-107
Health implications of milk containing beta-casein with the A2 genetic variant.Bell, SJ. Grochoski, GT. Clarke, AJ. (2006). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(1), pp: 93-100.
Gluten-Free and Casein-Free DietsMulloy A, Lang R, O’Reilly M, Sigafoos J, Lancioni G, Rispoli M, (2010). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 4(3):328-39
The A2 milk case: a critical review.Truswell, AS. (2005). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(5), pp:623-631.
A critique of Truswell's A2 milk review.Woodford, KB. (2006). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(3), pp: 437-439.
Further research for consideration in 'the A2 milk case'.Allison, AJ. Clarke, AJ. (2006). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(7), pp: 924-925
Formation and degradation of beta-casomorphins in dairy processing.Nguyen, DD. Johnson, SK. Busetti, F. Solah, VA. (2015). Formation and degradation of beta-casomorphins in dairy processing. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(14), pp:1955-1967.
Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human health.Kaminski, S. Cieslinska, A. Kostyra, E. (2007). Journal of Applied Genetics, 48(4), pp:189-198.
Caseins as source of bioactive peptides.Silva, SV. Malcata, FX. (2005). International Dairy Journal, 15(1), pp:1-15.
Functional Significance of Bioactive Peptides Derived from Milk ProteinsKamauab S.M, Lua R, Chena W, Liua X, Tiana F, Shena Y, et al. (2010). Food Reviews International 26(4): 386-401
Opioid peptides encrypted in intact milk protein sequencesMeisel H & FitzGerald R.J, (2000). Br J Nutr. 84 Suppl 1, S27-31
Opioid activities of beta-casomorphinsBrantl V, Teschemacher H, Blasig J, Henschen A, Lottspeich F, (1981). Life Sci. 28(17),1903-9
Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overviewShah N.P, (2000). Br J Nutr. 84 Suppl 1:S3-10
Immunoregulatory peptides in bovine milkGill H.S, Doull F, Rutherfurd K.J, Cross M.L, (2000). Br J Nutr. 84(Suppl 1), S111-7
Latent bioactive peptides in milk proteins: proteolytic activation and significance in dairy processingGobbetti M, Stepaniak L, De Angelis M, Corsetti A, Di Cagno R, (2002). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 42(3):223-39
Milk A1 and A2 peptides and diabetesClemens R.A, (2011). Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 67:187-95
Intestinal assimilation of intact peptides and proteins from the diet–a neglected field?Gardner M.L, (1984). Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 59(3):289-331
Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder (Review)Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G, (2008). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 16;(2):CD003498
Minireview. Peptides and the blood-brain barrierMeisenberg G, Simmons W.H, (1983). Life Sci. 32(23):2611-23
Effects of peptides on animal and human behavior: a review of studies published in the first twenty years of the journal PeptidesMcLay R.N, Pan W, Kastin A.J, (2001). Peptides. 22(12):2181-255
Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IVLambeir A.M, Durinx C, Scharpe S, De Meester I, (2003). Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 40(3):209-94