There is an extensive body of scientific literature made up of over 100 independent, peer-reviewed studies that underpins A1 beta-casein digestion, the release of BCM-7 and its subsequent health effects. The a2 Milk Company are committed to building upon this evidence base.
Below you will find summaries of studies into the A1/A2 beta-casein digestive differences as well as links to the original papers.
Systematic Review of the Gastrointestinal Effects of A1 Compared with A2 b-CaseinBrooke-Taylor S et al. (2017). Adv Nutr 8:739-48
Clinical evaluation of glutathione concentrations after consumption of milk containing different subtypes of β-casein: results from a randomized, cross-over clinical trialDeth et al. (2016) Glutathione Research 15:82
Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk.Jianquin, S. et al. (2016) Nutrition Journal, 15:45
A1/A2 protein explained
Preclinical and Clinical Trials for investigating the effect of A1 vs A2 beta-casein containing diet on Glutathione antioxidant statusApril 2016 The FASEB Journal vol. 30 no. 1 Supplement 289.8
Summary Report Nutrition Society of Australia (NSA) A1 and A2 beta-casein: searching for common ground and moving the science forwardNSA (Melbourne group) hosted a recent expert workshop on the current evidence on beta-casein variants and health. Over one hundred nutrition researchers, health professionals, NSA members and industry colleagues attended resulting in lively discussion and debate on this novel topic. In this state-of-the-evidence report, experts present the latest research, discuss gaps in knowledge and address key questions in a round table panel discussion.
Disclosure Statement Nutrition Society of Australia (NSA) A1 and A2 beta-casein: searching for common ground and moving the science forwardNSA (Melbourne group) hosted a recent expert workshop on the current evidence on beta-casein variants and health. Over one hundred nutrition researchers, health professionals, NSA members and industry colleagues attended resulting in lively discussion and debate on this novel topic. In this state-of-the-evidence report, experts present the latest research, discuss gaps in knowledge and address key questions in a round table panel discussion.
Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequencesTrivedi M.S et al. (2014) J Nutr Biochem, 25 (10), 1011-8
Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measuresPal S, Woodford K, Kukuljan S, Ho S, Nutrients. (2015). 7(9), 7285-97
Scientific Report of EFSA prepared by a DATEX Working Group on the potential health impact of ß-casomorphins and related peptidesEFSA Scientific Report (2009). 231, 1-107
Health implications of milk containing beta-casein with the A2 genetic variantBell S.J, Grochoski G.T, Clarke A.J, (2006). Crit RevFood Sci Nutr. 46(1), 93-100
Gluten-Free and Casein-Free DietsMulloy A, Lang R, O’Reilly M, Sigafoos J, Lancioni G, Rispoli M, (2010). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 4(3):328-39
Beta casein A1 and A2 in milk and human healthSwinburn B, (2004). Prepared for New Zealand Food Safety Authority, July, 2004
Formation and Degradation of Beta-casomorphins in Dairy ProcessingNguyen D.D, Johnson S.K, Busetti F, Solah V.A, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2015). 55(14), 1955-67
Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human healthKaminski S, Cieslinska A, Kostroyra E, (2007). J Appl Genet. 48(3), 189-98
Caseins as source of bioactive peptidesSilva S.V, Malcata F.X, (2005). International Dairy Journal (15): 1-15
Functional Significance of Bioactive Peptides Derived from Milk ProteinsKamauab S.M, Lua R, Chena W, Liua X, Tiana F, Shena Y, et al. (2010). Food Reviews International 26(4): 386-401
Opioid peptides encrypted in intact milk protein sequencesMeisel H & FitzGerald R.J, (2000). Br J Nutr. 84 Suppl 1, S27-31
Opioid activities of beta-casomorphinsBrantl V, Teschemacher H, Blasig J, Henschen A, Lottspeich F, (1981). Life Sci. 28(17),1903-9
Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overviewShah N.P, (2000). Br J Nutr. 84 Suppl 1:S3-10
Immunoregulatory peptides in bovine milkGill H.S, Doull F, Rutherfurd K.J, Cross M.L, (2000). Br J Nutr. 84(Suppl 1), S111-7
Latent bioactive peptides in milk proteins: proteolytic activation and significance in dairy processingGobbetti M, Stepaniak L, De Angelis M, Corsetti A, Di Cagno R, (2002). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 42(3):223-39
Milk A1 and A2 peptides and diabetesClemens R.A, (2011). Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 67:187-95
Intestinal assimilation of intact peptides and proteins from the diet–a neglected field?Gardner M.L, (1984). Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 59(3):289-331
Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder (Review)Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G, (2008). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 16;(2):CD003498
Minireview. Peptides and the blood-brain barrierMeisenberg G, Simmons W.H, (1983). Life Sci. 32(23):2611-23
Effects of peptides on animal and human behavior: a review of studies published in the first twenty years of the journal PeptidesMcLay R.N, Pan W, Kastin A.J, (2001). Peptides. 22(12):2181-255
Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IVLambeir A.M, Durinx C, Scharpe S, De Meester I, (2003). Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 40(3):209-94
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